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    Friday, January 11, 2013

    How to configure ZFS (zoning) in Solaris 10

    Zones in Solaris server in some way serves the same purpose as virtualization where you are allowed to create several zones which will act as an individual machine.

    These are the features of zones in Solaris:

    • Virtualization
    • Solaris Zones can host only instances of Solaris. Not other OSs.
    • Limit of 8192 zones per Solaris host
    • Primary zone(global) has access to ALL zones
    • Non-global zones, do NOT have access to other non-global zones
    • Default non-global zones derive packages from global zone
    • Program isolation - zone1(Apache), zone2(MySQL)
    • Provides 'z' commands to manage zones: zlogin, zonename, zoneadm,zonecfg
    Features of Global zone:
    • Solaris ALWAYS boots(cold/warm) to the global zone
    • Knows about ALL hardware devices attached to the system
    • Knows about ALL non-global zones
    Features of Non-Global zones:
    • Installed at a location on the filesystem of the GLOBAL zone 'zone root path' /export/home/zones/{zone1,zone2,zone3,...}
    •  Share packages with GLOBAL zone
    •  Manage distinct hostname and tables files
    •  Cannot communicate with other non-global zones by default. NIC must be used, which means, use standard network API(TCP)
    •  Global zone admin can delegate non-global zone administration

    Steps for configuring non-global zone:

    # mkdir /export/home/zones
    # chmod 700 /export/home/zones/testzone1

    Creating a zone:

    # zonecfg -z testzone1
    zonecfg:testzone1> set zonepath=/export/home/zones/testzone1
    zonecfg:testzone1> add net
    zonecfg:testzone1:net> set address=
    zonecfg:testzone1:net> set physical=e1000g0
    zonecfg:testzone1:net> set defrouter=
    zonecfg:testzone1:net> info
    physical: e1000g0

    zonecfg:testzone1:net> exit
    Resource incomplete; really quit (y/[n])? n
    zonecfg:testzone1:net> end
    zonecfg:testzone1> verify
    zonecfg:testzone1> commit
    zonecfg:testzone1> exit

    Configuring a zone:

    # zonecfg -z testzone1 info
    zonename: testzone1
    zonepath: /export/home/zones/testzone1
    brand: native
    autoboot: false
    ip-type: shared
    dir: /lib
    dir: /platform
    dir: /sbin
    dir: /usr
    physical: e1000g0

    Installing a zone:

    bash-3.00# zoneadm -z testzone1 install
    Preparing to install zone <testzone1>.
    Creating list of files to copy from the global zone.
    Preparing to initialize <1090> packages on the zone.
    Initializing package <622> of <1090>: percent complete: 57%
    Initialized <1090> packages on zone.
    Zone <testzone1> is initialized.
    The file  </export/home/zones/testzone1/root/var/sadm/system/logs/install_log>
    contains a log of the zone installation.

    Booting the zone

    bash-3.00# zoneadm -z testzone1 boot
    bash-3.00# zoneadm list -iv
    0  global    running   /    native shared
    1  testzone1 running   /    export/home/zones/testzone1 native shared
    Zlogin is used to login to zones

    NOTE: each non-global zone maintains a console. Use 'zlogin -C zonename' after installing zone to complete zone configuration

    NOTE: Zlogin permits login to non-global zone via the following:

     1. Interactive - i.e. zlogin -l username zonename
     2. Non-interactive - zlogin options command
     3. Console mode - zlogin -C zonename
     4. Safe mode - zlogin -S

    Now login to your zone and complete the installation using this command
    # zlogin -C testzone1
    To reboot the zone
    # zoneadm -z testzone1 reboot
    To shutdown the zone
    # zlogin testzone1 shutdown

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